Analysis of Climate Change Impacts on the Food System Security of Saudi Arabia

Muhammad Muhitur Rahman*, Runa Akter, Jaber Bin Abdul Bari, Md Arif Hasan, Mohammad Shahedur Rahman, Syed Abu Shoaib, Ziad Nayef Shatnawi, Ammar Fayez Alshayeb, Faisal Ibrahim Shalabi, Aminur Rahman, Mohammed Ahmed Alsanad, Syed Masiur Rahman

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

2 Scopus citations


Climate change poses a challenge to the security and long-term viability of the global food supply chain. Climate unpredictability and extreme weather events have significant impacts on Saudi Arabia’s vulnerable food system, which is already under stress. The Kingdom of Saudi Arabia faces distinct challenges in comparison to other dry locations across the world. Here, the per capita water demand is high, the population is growing, the water resources are extremely limited, and there is little information on the existing groundwater supplies. Consequently, it is anticipated that there will be formidable obstacles in the future. In order to make data-driven decisions, policymakers should be aware of causal links. The complex concerns pertaining to the Saudi Arabian food system were analyzed and rationally explained in the current study. A causality analysis examined different driving factors, including temperature, greenhouse gas (GHG) emission, population, and gross domestic product (GDP) that cause vulnerabilities in the country’s food system. The results of the long-run causality test show that GDP has a positive causal relationship with the demand for food, which implies that the demand for food will increase in the long run with an increase in GDP. The result also shows that Saudi Arabia’s GDP and population growth are contributing to the increase in their total GHG emissions. Although the Kingdom has made some efforts to combat climate change, there are still plenty of opportunities for it to implement some of the greatest strategies to guarantee the nation’s food security. This study also highlights the development of appropriate policy approaches to diversify its import sources to ensure future food security.

Original languageEnglish
Article number14482
Issue number21
StatePublished - Nov 2022

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
The authors acknowledge the support received from the Deanship of Scientific Research at King Faisal University (KFU), King Fahd University of Petroleum & Minerals (KFUPM), and Al-Imam Mohammad Ibn Saud Islamic University, Saudi Arabia.

Funding Information:
This research was supported by the Al Bilad Bank Scholarly Chair for Food Security in Saudi Arabia, the Deanship of Scientific Research, Vice Presidency for Graduate Studies and Scientific Research, King Faisal University, Al-Ahsa 31982, Saudi Arabia (grant No. CHAIR73 (GRANT1455)).

Publisher Copyright:
© 2022 by the authors.


  • adaptation and mitigation strategies
  • agriculture
  • climate change policy
  • food system vulnerabilities

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Computer Science (miscellaneous)
  • Environmental Science (miscellaneous)
  • Geography, Planning and Development
  • Energy Engineering and Power Technology
  • Hardware and Architecture
  • Management, Monitoring, Policy and Law
  • Computer Networks and Communications
  • Renewable Energy, Sustainability and the Environment


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