Advancing sustainability through emulsification of thermochemical fluids: Exploring emulsion characteristics and rheological properties

Ali A. Al-Taq, Murtada Saleh Aljawad*, Olalekan Saheed Alade, Murtada Al-Hashem, Shirish Patil, Sidqi A. Abu Khamsin, Mohamed Mahmoud

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Emulsification serves various purposes, including controlling the reactivity of highly reactive chemicals. Thermochemical fluids (TCFs), such as ammonium chloride (NH4Cl) and sodium nitrite (NaNO2) salts, have been utilized in diverse applications, including the petroleum industry. The excessive reactivity of TCFs limits their applications and consequently negatively impacts the potential success rates. One of the recent recommendations concerning TCFs is their use for the in-situ generation of foamed fracturing fluids. Controlling the reactivity of TCFs ensures that chemical reactions are optimized, minimizing chemical waste and maximizing efficiency, while the utilization of foamed fracturing fluids conserves water resources and reduces the overall environmental footprint of industrial processes. Both aspects are crucial for achieving sustainability goals by reducing resource consumption and environmental impact. This study examined three distinct emulsifiers, each containing a surfactant and cosurfactant designated as A, B and C for NH4Cl and NaNO2 solutions independently or as a composite mixture in diesel. Laboratory results demonstrated that water-in-oil (WO) emulsions of TCFs in diesel were achieved using the three emulsifiers under examination. The 70 % TCFs/diesel emulsions exhibited pseudoplastic fluid characteristics and generally followed the power-law model. The increase in TCFs volume fraction and emulsifier concentration positively influenced the emulsion properties, including its thermal stability. Emulsifier-A demonstrated the most effective emulsification capability, as evidenced by relatively higher viscosity and smaller droplet size distributions. Emulsifier-B and Emulsifier-C, with low pH values, due to the presence of acetic acid in their compositions, tended to activate the reaction of the TCFs when emulsified as a composite mixture in diesel. Raising the pH levels of the mixed TCFs solutions before the emulsification process enhanced the emulsion characteristics of their emulsions. The paper presents a detailed characterization of WO emulsions of TCS-in-diesel using three distinct emulsifiers and explores their potential contribution towards sustainability.

Original languageEnglish
Article number124021
JournalJournal of Molecular Liquids
StatePublished - 15 Feb 2024

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2024 Elsevier B.V.


  • Characterization
  • Emulsification
  • Rheology
  • Sustainability
  • Thermochemical Fluids

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Electronic, Optical and Magnetic Materials
  • Atomic and Molecular Physics, and Optics
  • Condensed Matter Physics
  • Spectroscopy
  • Physical and Theoretical Chemistry
  • Materials Chemistry


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