A tool to assess analytical sample preparation procedures: Sample preparation metric of sustainability

Raúl González-Martín, Adrián Gutiérrez-Serpa, Verónica Pino*, Muhammad Sajid

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

10 Scopus citations


Sample preparation is a key step in most analytical methods, generally regarded as the least green step of the entire procedure. The existing green metrics assess the greenness of sample preparation techniques through the evaluation of the whole analytical procedure: including sampling, sample preparation, and the final detection/quantitation. Such inclusion of the entire method makes assessing the sustainability of a newly developed sample preparation technique quite challenging, as many aspects not solely linked to the sample preparation step are unavoidably considered. Thus, an alternative metric that can explicitly and exclusively evaluate the sample preparation is proposed. The metric is simple; it reports the result with a clock-like diagram, displaying the greenness outcome of main sample preparation parameters and a total score. This new metric can differentiate closely related microextraction approaches in terms of sustainability. The metric is also open-source and can be used by downloading the Excel sheet provided.

Original languageEnglish
Article number464291
JournalJournal of Chromatography A
StatePublished - 27 Sep 2023

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2023 The Authors


  • Analytical extractions
  • Green analytical chemistry
  • Greenness metrics
  • Sample preparation

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Analytical Chemistry
  • Biochemistry
  • Organic Chemistry


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