A Survey of TCP over ad hoc networks

Ahmad Al Hanbali, Eitan Altman, Philippe Nain

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

130 Scopus citations


The Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) was designed to provide reliable end-to-end delivery of data over unreliable networks. In practice, most TCP deployments have been carefully designed in the context of wired networks. Ignoring the properties of wireless ad hoc networks can lead to TCP implementations with poor performance. In order to adapt TCP to the ad hoc environment, improvements have been proposed in the literature to help TCP to differentiate between the different types of losses. Indeed, in mobile or static ad hoc networks losses are not always due to network congestion, as it is mostly the case in wired networks. In this report, we present an overview of this issue and a detailed discussion of the major factors involved. In particular, we show how TCP can be affected by mobility and lower-layer protocols. In addition, we survey the main proposals that are intended to adapting TCP to mobile and static ad hoc environments.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)22-36
Number of pages15
JournalIEEE Communications Surveys and Tutorials
Issue number3
StatePublished - Sep 2005
Externally publishedYes

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
We would like to thank Daniele Miorandi and Urtzi Ayesta for their help. This work was supported in part by the EuroNGI Network of Excellence (NoE).

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Electrical and Electronic Engineering


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