A review on fluoride contamination in groundwater and human health implications and its remediation: A sustainable approaches

Pankaj Kumar*, Manoj Kumar, Abdulwasa Bakr Barnawi, Parul Maurya, Snigdha Singh, Deepankshi Shah, Virendra Kumar Yadav, Anand Kumar, Ramesh Kumar, Krishna Kumar Yadav*, Amel Gacem, Akil Ahmad, Ashish Patel, Maha Awjan Alreshidi, Vipin Singh, Zaher Mundher Yaseen, Marina M.S. Cabral-Pinto, Vandana Vinayak, Shivraj Gangadhar Wanale

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review


Contamination of drinking water due to fluoride (F) is a major concern worldwide. Although fluoride is an essential trace element required for humans, it has severe human health implications if levels exceed 1.5 mg. L−1 in groundwater. Several treatment technologies have been adopted to remove fluoride and reduce the exposure risk. The present article highlights the source, geochemistry, spatial distribution, and health implications of high fluoride in groundwater. Also, it discusses the underlying mechanisms and controlling factors of fluoride contamination. The problem of fluoride-contaminated water is more severe in India's arid and semiarid regions than in other Asian countries. Treatment technologies like adsorption, ion exchange, precipitation, electrolysis, electrocoagulation, nanofiltration, coagulation-precipitation, and bioremediation have been summarized along with case studies to look for suitable technology for fluoride exposure reduction. Although present technologies are efficient enough to remove fluoride, they have specific limitations regarding cost, labour intensity, and regeneration requirements.

Original languageEnglish
Article number104356
JournalEnvironmental Toxicology and Pharmacology
StatePublished - Mar 2024

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2024 Elsevier B.V.


  • Contamination
  • Fluoride
  • Groundwater
  • Health implication
  • Spatial distribution

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Toxicology
  • Pharmacology
  • Health, Toxicology and Mutagenesis


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