A Review of Gemini Surfactants: Potential Application in Enhanced Oil Recovery

Muhammad Shahzad Kamal*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

242 Scopus citations


Gemini surfactants are a group of novel surfactants with more than one hydrophilic head group and hydrophobic tail group linked by a spacer at or near the head groups. Unique properties of gemini surfactants, such as low critical micelle concentration, good water solubility, unusual micelle structures and aggregation behavior, high efficiency in reducing oil/water interfacial tension, and interesting rheological properties have attracted the attention of academic researchers and field experts. Rheological characterization and determination of the interfacial tension are two of the most important screening techniques for the evaluation and selection of chemicals for enhanced oil recovery (EOR). This review deals with rheology, wettability alteration, adsorption and interfacial properties of gemini surfactants and various factors affecting their performance. The review highlights the current research activities on the application of gemini surfactants in EOR.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)223-236
Number of pages14
JournalJournal of Surfactants and Detergents
Issue number2
StatePublished - 1 Mar 2016

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2015 AOCS.


  • Enhanced oil recovery
  • Gemini surfactants
  • Interfacial tension
  • Rheology
  • Surface tension

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • General Chemical Engineering
  • Physical and Theoretical Chemistry
  • Surfaces, Coatings and Films


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