A Critical, Temporal Analysis of Saudi Arabia’s Initiatives for Greenhouse Gas Emissions Reduction in the Energy Sector

Muhammad Muhitur Rahman*, Md Arif Hasan, Md Shafiullah, Mohammad Shahedur Rahman, Md Arifuzzaman, Md Kamrul Islam, Mohammed Monirul Islam, Syed Masiur Rahman

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

10 Scopus citations


The per capita greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions of Saudi Arabia were more than three times the global average emissions in 2019. The energy sector is the most dominant GHG-emitting sector in the country; its energy consumption has increased over five times in the last four decades, from over 2000 quadrillion joules in 1981 to around 11,000 quadrillion joules in 2019, while the share of renewable energy in 2019 was only 0.1%. To reduce GHG emissions, the Saudi Arabian government has undertaken initiatives for improving energy efficiency and increasing the production of renewable energies in the country. However, there are few investigative studies into the effectiveness of these initiatives in improving energy efficiency and reducing greenhouse gas emissions. This study provides an overview of the various energy efficiency and renewable energy initiatives undertaken in Saudi Arabia. Then, it evaluates the effectiveness of energy-related policies and initiatives using an indicator-based approach. In addition, this study performs temporal and econometrics analyses to understand the trends and the causal relationships among various drivers of energy sector emissions. Energy intensity and efficiency have improved moderately in recent years. This study will support policymakers in identifying significant policy gaps in reducing the emissions from the energy sector; furthermore, this study will provide a reference for tracking the progress of their policy initiatives. In addition, the methodology used in this study could be applied in other studies to evaluate various climate change policies and their progress.

Original languageEnglish
Article number12651
Issue number19
StatePublished - Oct 2022

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
This research was funded by the Deanship of Scientific Research at King Faisal University (KFU), Al-Ahsa 31982, Saudi Arabia, through Project No. GRANT1442.

Funding Information:
The authors acknowledge the support received from the Deanship of Scientific Research at King Faisal University (KFU), King Fahd University of Petroleum & Minerals (KFUPM), and Al-Imam Mohammad Ibn Saud Islamic University, Saudi Arabia.

Publisher Copyright:
© 2022 by the authors.


  • decarbonization
  • demand management
  • econometric analysis
  • energy efficiency
  • energy sector
  • GCC country
  • greenhouse gas emissions
  • renewable energy
  • Saudi Arabia

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Computer Science (miscellaneous)
  • Geography, Planning and Development
  • Renewable Energy, Sustainability and the Environment
  • Building and Construction
  • Environmental Science (miscellaneous)
  • Energy Engineering and Power Technology
  • Hardware and Architecture
  • Computer Networks and Communications
  • Management, Monitoring, Policy and Law


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