A critical review on functionally graded ceramic materials for cutting tools: Current trends and future prospects

Syed Sohail Akhtar*, Rashid Ali Laghari, Amer D. Alotaibi, Abba A. Abubakar, Samir Mekid, Khaled S. Al-Athel

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review


This review is an attempt to explore the challenges that need to be addressed to fully utilize the potential of ceramic-based functionally graded cutting tools (FGCTs). The various aspects covered in the review include the most recent experimental and numerical work related to FGCTs, the current research trends and the need for these tools, the identification of potential material combinations, synthesis techniques and their limitations, and finally a presentation of the most recent work. To find general tribological performance, various wear mechanisms involved in the cutting process are explored. Some recent experimental and numerical works related to the self-lubricating phase in functionally graded structure and the need for self-lubricating ceramic tools, identifying potential high-temperature solid lubricants, and their limitations are also discussed. More recent and dominating fabrication methods are also discussed in detail along with a brief review of some promising methods. The implementation of numerical modeling and computational frameworks validated through experiments is found to lead to the design and development of cost-effective and efficient FGCTs. Finally, some research gaps are identified and future directions for innovative FGCT materials are proposed.

Original languageEnglish
Article number20230141
JournalReviews on Advanced Materials Science
Issue number1
StatePublished - 1 Jan 2023

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2023 the author(s), published by De Gruyter.


  • ceramic composites
  • cutting tools
  • functionally-graded
  • machining process
  • sintering

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • General Materials Science
  • Condensed Matter Physics


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