A Comprehensive Review of Saline Water Correlations and Data-Part I: Thermodynamic Properties

Muhammad M. Generous, Naef A.A. Qasem, Bilal A. Qureshi, Syed M. Zubair*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

25 Scopus citations


Thermodynamic properties in a format of correlations, models, and data are reviewed for saline water. Even though seawater properties were reviewed in the literature, different essential parametric conditions are considered in this paper, such as multi-component (ions) concentration and high salinity, in addition to temperature and pressure. The thermodynamic properties are tabulated to include solution concentration, density, specific heat capacity, latent heat of vaporization, boiling point elevation, vapor pressure, specific enthalpy, and specific entropy. Other thermophysical properties such as viscosity, surface tension, electrical conductivity, thermal conductivity, osmotic coefficient, activity coefficient, and thermal expansivity are discussed in the accompanying part II paper. This part aims at being a comprehensive reference source of these properties for all the saline water types, in which Na and Cl are the major constituents, including brackish water, seawater, and high saline water from basins, lakes, produced water from oil and gas hydraulic fracturing, and so on. The correlations are listed in tabular forms and evaluated in terms of accuracy against available experimental data. Guidelines for selecting some correlations are discussed as well. New correlations with high accuracy for NaCl-specific enthalpy and specific entropy are proposed for a salinity range of 0–260 g/kg (0–6 molal) at ambient conditions.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)8817-8876
Number of pages60
JournalArabian Journal for Science and Engineering
Issue number11
StatePublished - Nov 2020

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2020, King Fahd University of Petroleum & Minerals.


  • Correlations
  • High salinity
  • Multi-component saline water
  • Thermodynamic properties

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • General


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