To operate photovoltaic (PV) systems efficiently, the maximum available power should always be extracted. However, due to rapidly varying environmental conditions such as irradiation, temperature, and shading, determining the maximum available power is a time-varying problem. To extract the maximum available power and track the optimal power point under these varying environmental conditions, maximum power point tracking (MPPT) techniques are proposed. The application of MPPT for extracting maximum power plays a crucial role in developing efficient PV systems. These MPPT techniques face several issues and limitations, particularly during partial shading conditions caused by non-uniform environmental conditions. Researchers have been focusing more on mitigating the partial shading condition in PV systems for the last few years due to the need to improve power output and efficiency. This paper provides an overview of MPPTs proposed in the literature for uniform and non-uniform environmental conditions broadly categorized as MPPT-based and circuit-based methods. The MPPT-based methods are classified as conventional, soft computing, and hybrid techniques. A critical analysis of each approach regarding tracking speed, algorithm complexity, and dynamic tracking under partial shading is discussed. The literature shows hybrid strategies provide fast-tracking speed and are efficient with a tracking efficiency of around 99% compared to conventional methods; however, their design and practical implementation are complex. This comprehensive review of MPPT methods aims to provide power utilities and researchers with a reference and guideline to select the best MPPT method for normal operation and partially shaded PV systems based on their effectiveness and economic feasibility.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
The authors acknowledge the support provided by the Interdisciplinary Research Center for Renewable Energy and Power Systems (IRC-REPS), Research Institute, King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals, through project #INRE2323.
© 2023 by the authors.
- MPPT classification
- global peak
- partial shading
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Computer Science (miscellaneous)
- Geography, Planning and Development
- Renewable Energy, Sustainability and the Environment
- Environmental Science (miscellaneous)
- Energy Engineering and Power Technology
- Hardware and Architecture
- Computer Networks and Communications
- Management, Monitoring, Policy and Law