3D weighted centroid algorithm & RSSI ranging model strategy for node localization in WSN based on smart devices

Syed Bilal Shah, Chen Zhe, Fuliang Yin, Inam Ullah Khan*, Seema Begum, Muhammad Faheem, Fakhri Alam Khan

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

49 Scopus citations


The existing research is about location tracking either completely indoor or altogether on open air by utilizing various sensors and procedures based on inter-networking or internet of things. A limited arrangement has been proposed to embrace a single location area detecting innovation that based on both environments using physical devices. This paper intends to track a client position in both indoor and open-air situations by utilizing a single remote sensor with negligible subsequent bumble. The huge majority of the existing localization arrangements use additional equipment supplies to accomplish higher limitation precision. Received signal strength indicator (RSSI) was the standard element of remote sensors; the localization methods won't have any extra equipment. To overcome the problems, we need to study how to grow more precision distance for the strength of the signal model and 3dimensional measurement techniques. The Path Loss Exponent (PLE) determines the separation of RSS. In this event that RSS diminish at the separation, PLE will measure the rate; its esteem depends on the extraordinary proliferation environment. For positioning, the system requires location data. Most part use two-dimensional positioning as a part of the system with moving toward localization with three-dimensional positioning with weighted centroid restriction calculation as a proposed work. Here considers the triangular pyramid to perform three-dimensional positioning instead of three circle intersection method, in which the pyramid is divided into four two-dimensional surfaces. It consists of different parts of the environment where transmitter and receiver's parts have the different PLE when compared to others existing research. Many researchers used two-dimensional positioning system, however, some circumstances we have to go through in three-dimensional position system. So, the proposed idea is basically based on the three-dimensional centroid limitation of systems.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)298-308
Number of pages11
JournalSustainable Cities and Society
StatePublished - May 2018
Externally publishedYes

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2018 Elsevier Ltd


  • 3D weighted centroid localization algorithm
  • Maximum likelihood estimation (MLE)
  • Path loss exponent (PLE)
  • Received signal strength indicator (RSSI)
  • WSN

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Geography, Planning and Development
  • Transportation
  • Renewable Energy, Sustainability and the Environment
  • Civil and Structural Engineering


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