3D Printable Geopolymer Composites Reinforced with Carbon-Based Nanomaterials – A Review

Shaik Inayath Basha, Atta Ur Rehman, Hammad R. Khalid, Md Abdul Aziz, Jung Hoon Kim*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

1 Scopus citations


Three-dimensional (3D) geopolymer printing (3DGP) technology is a rapidly evolving digital fabrication method used in the construction industry. This technology offers significant benefits over 3D concrete printing in terms of energy saving and reduced carbon emissions, thus promoting sustainability. 3DGP technology is still evolving, and researchers are striving to develop high-performance printable materials and different methods to improve its robustness and efficiency. Carbon-based nanomaterials (CBNs) with beneficial properties have a wide range of applications in various fields, including as concrete/geopolymer systems in construction. This paper comprehensively reviews the research progress on carbon-based nanomaterials (CBNs) used to develop extrusion-based 3D geopolymer printing (3DGP) technology, including dispersion techniques, mixing methods, and the materials′ performance. The rheological, mechanical, durability, and other characteristics of these materials are also examined. Furthermore, the existing research limitations and the prospects of using 3DGP technology to produce high-quality composite mixtures are critically evaluated.

Original languageEnglish
Article numbere202300054
JournalChemical Record
Issue number10
StatePublished - Oct 2023

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
This research was supported by the Yonsei University under the Yonsei Frontier Lab (YFL) Program for Young Postdoctoral Researchers 2022 (Grant No. 2022‐12‐0157) and the National Research Foundation (NRF) Korea (Grant No. 2021R1A2C2013522).

Publisher Copyright:
© 2023 The Chemical Society of Japan & Wiley-VCH GmbH.


  • 3D geopolymer printing
  • Carbon-based geopolymer composites
  • Carbon-based nanomaterials
  • Dispersion
  • Geopolymer

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Chemistry (all)
  • Biochemistry
  • Chemical Engineering (all)
  • Materials Chemistry


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