19.31% binary organic solar cell and low non-radiative recombination enabled by non-monotonic intermediate state transition

Jiehao Fu, Patrick W.K. Fong, Heng Liu, Chieh Szu Huang, Xinhui Lu, Shirong Lu, Maged Abdelsamie, Tim Kodalle, Carolin M. Sutter-Fella, Yang Yang*, Gang Li*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

58 Scopus citations


Non-fullerene acceptors based organic solar cells represent the frontier of the field, owing to both the materials and morphology manipulation innovations. Non-radiative recombination loss suppression and performance boosting are in the center of organic solar cell research. Here, we developed a non-monotonic intermediate state manipulation strategy for state-of-the-art organic solar cells by employing 1,3,5-trichlorobenzene as crystallization regulator, which optimizes the film crystallization process, regulates the self-organization of bulk-heterojunction in a non-monotonic manner, i.e., first enhancing and then relaxing the molecular aggregation. As a result, the excessive aggregation of non-fullerene acceptors is avoided and we have achieved efficient organic solar cells with reduced non-radiative recombination loss. In PM6:BTP-eC9 organic solar cell, our strategy successfully offers a record binary organic solar cell efficiency of 19.31% (18.93% certified) with very low non-radiative recombination loss of 0.190 eV. And lower non-radiative recombination loss of 0.168 eV is further achieved in PM1:BTP-eC9 organic solar cell (19.10% efficiency), giving great promise to future organic solar cell research.

Original languageEnglish
Article number1760
JournalNature Communications
Issue number1
StatePublished - Dec 2023

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
G.L. thanks the Research Grants Council of Hong Kong (GRF grant 15211320, CRF C5037-18G, SRFS RGC Senior Research Fellowship Scheme (SRFS2122-5S04)), National Science Foundation of China (NSFC 51961165102), Hong Kong Polytechnic University (the Sir Sze-yuen Chung Endowed Professorship Fund (8-8480), RISE (Q-CDA5), G-SAC5), and Guangdong-Hong Kong-Macao Joint Laboratory for Photonic-Thermal-Electrical Energy Materials and Devices (GDSTC No. 2019B121205001). T.K. thanks the German Research Foundation (DFG) for funding (Fellowship No. KO6414). M.A. acknowledges support by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Science, Office of Basic Energy Sciences, Materials Sciences and Engineering Division under Contract No. DE-AC02-05-CH 11231 (D2S2 program KCD2S2). Work at the Molecular Foundry was supported by the Office of Science, Office of Basic Energy Sciences, of the U.S. Department of Energy under Contract No. DE-AC02-05-CH 11231. This research used resources from the Advanced Light Source, which is a DOE Office of Science User Facility under contract no. DE-AC02-05CH11231 (beamline 12.3.2).

Publisher Copyright:
© 2023, The Author(s).

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Physics and Astronomy (all)
  • Chemistry (all)
  • Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology (all)


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