Seawater intrusion and salinization of fresh groundwater resources in Tarot Island, easter Saudi Arabia: causes and impacts in the context of climate changes

Project: Research

Project Details


Groundwater (GW) is the primary water resource used globally to meet all human and economic development demands. Salinization of fresh groundwater resources has become a major...r water security issue worldwide, and it is the most common type of groundwater pollution, especially in coastal regions. Elevated salinity of fresh groundwater resources can be due to seawater intrusion, agricultural activities, or natural processes (evaporative concentration and mineral dissolution). In Saudi Arabia, one of the semi-arid regions with a hot and dry climate, and low precipitation, Groundwater fulfills 35 % and 90% of water demand for urban and agricultural uses, respectively. In the eastern coastal region of the country, GW is the primary source for all purposes. This proposal aims to define the occurrence and cause of groundwater salinization of shallow and deep aquifers in Tarot inland and the impact of this process on the water quality and water availability for humankind purposes. The mechanisms of the elevated concentration of the total dissolved solids (TDS) in shallow and deep aquifers will be assessed. Considering all possible impacts of climate changes, soil, land use, and hydrological processes to accelerate the salinization of Groundwater. Remote sensing, climatological, Hydrogeological, and hydrochemical approach integrated with the isotopic signature of Groundwater will be adopted in this study. The spatial distribution of physical and chemical properties of the studied Groundwater will be mapped, and hot spot zones of groundwater salinity will be identified. The saltiness of the surface sediments will be assessed to delineate the salt concentration and its impact on the salinity of infiltrated water. The effect of land use and climate change on groundwater salinization and seawater intrusion process will be assessed. The expected outcomes of this study will be filling the gap in knowledge of groundwater salinization mechanisms of coastal aquifers. Delineation of the hot spot areas of elevated salinity can help the decision maker to develop a proper mitigation plan to protect the fresh groundwater resources from seawater intrusion and groundwater salinization.
Effective start/end date31/01/2331/01/24


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