The review of literature revealed an obvious potential of utilizing industrial waste materials (IWMs) as supplementary cementitious materials (SCMs) as partial or total replacement of cement which are considered as the most successful and effective solution for reducing CO2 emissions in the global cement industry. Although several SCMs were researched to determine the possibility of their use in concrete, only fly ash (FA), ground granulated blast furnace slag (GGBS), recycled fine powder (RFP) and silica fume (SF) are industrially proven to be effective thus far. However, the supplies and availability of SCMs are anticipated to decline globally compared to the demand for cement. These limitations make it difficult to advance the utilization of SCMs as cement replacement unless different versions of SCMs become available. On the other hand, clays along with limestone, are abundant in the earth's crust and might be utilized as SCMs. Therefore, clay containing kaolinite, which can be calcined between 600 800 oC to be highly pozzolanic and form an effective SCM, is the only type of material available in the amounts required to fulfil demand. Such clays are available abundantly in regions where cement demand is estimated to increase the most. Currently, calcined clay combined with limestone powder (Limestone Calcined Clay, LCC) is emerging as a new novel type of cement substitute material. Research have proven that the utilization of LCC as cementitious materials in concrete is viable to reduce environmental footprints (e.g., CO2 emission can be reduced by up to 40%) and to enhance the material durability. This technology has been given a name as limestone calcined clay cement (LC3) which has been produced with a recipe of 30% calcined clay (CC), 15% limestone (LS), 5% gypsum (GYP), and 50% clinker (C). However, these proportions may not provide sufficient and equivalent mechanical characteristics to those of standard Portland cement. One of the solutions for improving the mechanical and durability properties of cement-based materials is to use nanomaterials. According to the current advances in the field of nano-engineered concrete, nanomaterials, were found to be effective additives for partial cement replacement compared to the addition of supplemental cementitious materials. However, and to the best of investigators knowledge, no studies have been conducted on the possibility of employing nanomaterials into LC3-based materials for properties enhancement. Thus, this project aims to investigate the use of locally sourced raw materials to produce LC3 cement and the feasibility of incorporating nanomaterials into LC3 mortar for improving its fresh and hardened properties.
|Effective start/end date||1/01/22 → 1/01/23|
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